In 2022, women earned just $0.82 for every dollar earned by men, only slightly better than 20 years earlier. 

But beneath that relatively unchanging headline number and our assumptions about what’s behind it—such as occupational differences and pervasive gender bias—there’s a more dynamic narrative about wage and professional equity.

That story forms one pillar of Claudia Goldin’s Career & Family, published in 2021 and released in paperback this year. Goldin, the first woman tenured in Harvard’s Economics department, last month won the 2023 Nobel Prize in Economics for her research on gender differences in earnings and employment rates.

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